Bibliography: Different Approaches to New Testament Studies


Anderson, Janice C., and Stephen M. Moore, eds. Mark and Method: New Approaches in Biblical Studies. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.

Court, John. Reading the New Testament. New York: Routledge, 1997.

Green, Joel B., ed. Hearing the New Testament: Strategies for Interpretation. Rev. ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2008.

Tuckett, Christopher. Reading the New Testament: Methods of Interpretation. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1987.

See also the volumes in the Cambridge Methods in Biblical Interpretation series being published by Cambridge University Press, including Luke, ed. Joel B. Green (2010); Methods for Matthew, ed. Mark Allan Powell (2009).

Text Criticism

Aland, Kurt, and Barbra Aland. The Text of the New Testament: An Introduction to the Critical Editions and to the Theory and Practice of Modern Textual Criticism. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1989.

Comfort, Philip W. The Quest for the Original Text of the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1992; reprint, Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2003.

Metzger, Bruce M., and Bart D. Ehrman. The Text of the New Testament: Its Transmission, Corruption, and Restoration. 4th ed. New York: Oxford, 1992.


Charlesworth, James H., ed. Jesus and Archaeology. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.

Currid, John D. Doing Archaeology in the Land of the Bible: A Basic Guide. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2000.

McCray, J. Archaeology and the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1991.

Rousseau, John J., and Rami Arav. Jesus and His World. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.

Social-Scientific Approaches

Elliott, John H. What Is Social-Scientific Criticism? GBS. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1993.

Horrell, David. Social-Scientific Approaches to Biblical Interpretation. London: Routledge, 1996.

Rohrbaugh, Richard L., ed. The Social Sciences and New Testament Interpretation. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1996.

Sociological Criticism

Holmberg, Bengt. Sociology and the New Testament: An Appraisal. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1980.

Kee, Howard Clark. Knowing the Truth: A Sociological Approach to New Testament Interpretation. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

Taylor, Walter F. “Sociological Exegesis: Introduction to a New Way to Study the Bible,” 2 parts. Trinity Seminary Review 11, no. 2 (1989): 99–110, and 12, no. 1 (1990): 26–42.

Cultural Anthropology

Malina, Bruce. The New Testament World: Insights from Cultural Anthropology. 3rd ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.

Rohrbaugh, Richard L. The New Testament in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Eugene, OR: Cascade, 2007.

Historical Criticism

Krentz, Edgar. The Historical-Critical Method. GBS. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1975.

Powell, Mark Allan. Jesus as a Figure in History: How Modern Historians View the Man from Galilee. 2nd ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2013.

Stuhlmacher, Peter. Historical Criticism and Theological Interpretation of Scripture: Toward a Hermeneutics of Consent. Translated and with an introduction by Roy A. Harrisville. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1977.

Source Criticism

Black, David Alan. Why Four Gospels? The Historical Origins of the Gospels. Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2002.

Dungan, David L. A History of the Synoptic Problem: The Canon, the Text, the Composition, and the Interpretation of the Gospels. New York: Doubleday, 1999.

Goodacre, Mark. The Synoptic Problem: A Way through the Maze. London: T&T Clark International, 2004.

Stein, Robert H. Studying the Synoptic Gospels: Origin and Interpretation. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2001.

Tuckett, Christopher. Q and the History of Early Christianity. Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1996.

Form Criticism

Bailey, James L., and Lyle D. Vanderbroek. Literary Forms in the New Testament: A Handbook. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1992.

Koch, Klaus. The Growth of the Biblical Tradition: The Form-Critical Method. New York: Scribner, 1969.

McKnight, Edgar V. What Is Form Criticism? GBS. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969.

Ralph, Margaret Nutting. And God Said What? An Introduction to Biblical Literary Forms. Rev. ed. Mahwah, NJ: Paulist Press, 2003.

Redaction Criticism

Perrin, Norman. What Is Redaction Criticism? GBS. Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969.

Stein, Robert H. Gospels and Tradition: Studies on Redaction Criticism of the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1991.

Narrative Criticism

Powell, Mark Allan. What Is Narrative Criticism? GBS. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1990.

Resseguie, James L. Narrative Criticism and the New Testament: An Introduction. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2005.

Rhetorical Criticism

Black, C. Clifton. The Rhetoric of the Gospel: Theological Artistry in the Gospels and Acts. St. Louis: Chalice, 2001.

Eriksson, Anders, Thomas H. Olbricht, and Walter Übelacker, eds. Rhetorical Argumentation in Biblical Texts. Harrisburg, PA: Trinity Press International, 2002.

Kennedy, George. New Testament Interpretation through Rhetorical Criticism. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1984.

Mack, Burton L. Rhetoric and the New Testament. GBS. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1989.

Trible, Phyllis. Rhetorical Criticism. GBS. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1994.

Reader-Response Criticism

Fowler, Robert M. Reader-Response Criticism and the Gospel of Mark. 2nd ed. Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International, 2001.

Powell, Mark Allan. Chasing the Eastern Star: Adventures in Biblical Reader-Response Criticism. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2001.

Global/Cultural Perspectives

Adamo, David Tuesday. Biblical Interpretation in African Perspective. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2006.

Bailey, Randall C., ed. Yet with a Steady Beat: Contemporary US Afrocentric Biblical Interpretation. SBLSS. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, 2003.

Blount, Brian K., ed. True to Our Native Land: An African American New Testament Commentary. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.

Brown, Michael Joseph. Blackening of the Bible: The Aims of African American Biblical Scholarship. London: T&T Clark, 2004.

Brown, R. M. Unexpected News: Reading the Bible with Third World Eyes. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1984.

Felder, Cain Hope, ed. Stony the Road We Trod: African American Biblical Interpretation. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1991.

Foskett, Mary F., and Jeffrey Kah-Jin Kuan, eds. Ways of Being, Ways of Reading: Asian American Biblical Interpretation. St. Louis: Chalice, 2007.

Levison, John R., and Priscilla Pope-Levison, eds. Return to Babel: Global Perspectives on the Bible. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1999.

Reid, Barbara E. Taking Up the Cross: New Testament Interpretations through Latina and Feminist Eyes. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2007.

Segovia, Fernando F., and Mary Ann Tolbert, eds. Reading from This Place. Vol. 1, Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in the United States. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 1995.

———. Reading from This Place. Vol. 2, Social Location and Biblical Interpretation in Global Perspective. Minneapolis: Augsburg Fortress, 2000.

Sugirtharajah, R. S., ed. Voices from the Margins: Reading the Bible in the Third World. 3rd ed. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2006.

Feminist Criticism

Fiorenza, Elisabeth Schüssler, ed. Searching the Scriptures. 2 vols. New York: Crossroad, 1993–94.

Kroeger, Catherine Clark, and Mary J. Evans, eds. The IVP Women’s Bible Commentary. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2002.

Newsome, Carol A., and Sharon H. Ringe. The Women’s Bible Commentary. Rev. ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1998.

Russell, Letty M., ed. Feminist Interpretation of the Bible. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1985.

Wainwright, Elaine. “Feminist Criticism and the Gospel of Matthew.” In Methods for Matthew, edited by Mark Allan Powell, 83–117. CMBI. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Postcolonial Criticism

Segovia, Fernando F. Decolonizing Biblical Studies: A View from the Margins. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 2000.

Sugirtharajah, R. S. Postcolonial Criticism and Biblical Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

———. Postcolonial Reconfigurations: An Alternative Way of Reading the Bible and Doing Theology. St. Louis: Chalice, 2003.


Adam, A. K. M. What Is Postmodern Biblical Criticism? GBS. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1995.

Moore, Stephen D. Poststructuralism and the New Testament: Derrida and Foucault at the Foot of the Cross. Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994.

Seeley, David. Deconstructing the New Testament. BIS 5. Leiden: Brill, 1994.

The Practice of Exegesis

Conzelmann, Hans, and Andreas Lindemann. Interpreting the New Testament: An Introduction to the Principles and Methods of New Testament Exegesis. Translated by S. Schatzmann. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1988.

Fee, Gordon D. New Testament Exegesis: A Handbook for Students and Pastors. 3rd ed. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2002.

———. To What End Exegesis? Essays Textual, Exegetical, and Theological. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.

Gorman, Michael J. Elements of Biblical Exegesis: A Basic Guide for Students and Ministers. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 2001.

Hayes, John H., and Carl R. Holladay. Biblical Exegesis: A Beginner’s Handbook. Rev. ed. Atlanta: John Knox, 1987.

Porter, Stanley E. A Handbook on the Exegesis of the New Testament. NTTS 25. Leiden: Brill, 1996.

Stenger, Werner. Introduction to New Testament Exegesis. Translated by D. Stott. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.


Adam, A. K. M. Faithful Interpretation: Reading the Bible in a Postmodern World. Minneapolis: Fortress, 2006.

Adam, A. K. M., Stephen E. Fowl, Kevin J. Vanhoozer, and Frances Watson. Reading Scripture with the Church: Toward a Hermeneutic for Theological Interpretation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.

Brown, Jeannine K. Scripture as Communication: Introducing Biblical Hermeneutics. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2007.

Brown, W. P., ed. Engaging Biblical Authority. Perspectives on the Bible as Scripture. Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 2007.

Croatto, J. Severino. Biblical Hermeneutics: Toward a Theory of Reading as the Production of Meaning. Maryknoll, NY: Orbis, 1987.

Goldworthy, Graeme. Gospel-Centered Hermeneutics: Foundations and Principles of Evangelical Biblical Interpretation. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2007.

Larkin, William, Jr. Culture and Biblical Hermeneutics: Interpreting and Applying the Authoritative Word in a Relativistic Age. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 1988.

Osborne, Grant R. The Hermeneutical Spiral: A Comprehensive Introduction to Biblical Interpretation. 2nd ed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2006.

Schökel, Luis Alonso. A Manual of Hermeneutics. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1998.

Spinks, D. C. The Bible and the Crisis of Meaning. Debate on Theological Interpretation of Scripture. London: T&T Clark, 2007.

Vanhoozer, Kevin J., ed. Dictionary for Theological Interpretation of the Bible. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2005.